Definition and Details of Pipe - Materials -

ASTM Grades

Dimensions from carbon steel pipes are defined in the ASME B36.10 standard, dimensions for stainless steel pipe are defined in the ASME B36.19 standard. The material qualities for these pipes are defined in the ASTM standards.

These ASTM standards, define the specific manufacturing process of the material and determine the exact chemical composition of pipes, fittings and flanges, through percentages of the permitted quantities of carbon, magnesium, nickel, etc., and are indicated by "Grade".
For example, a carbon steel pipe can be identified with Grade A or B, a stainless-steel pipe with Grade TP304 or Grade TP321 etc..
Below you will find as an example a table with chemical requirements for fittings ASTM A403 Grade WP304, WP304L, WP316L and a table with frequent Grades, arranged on pipe and pipe-components, which belong together as a group.

As you may be have noted, in the table below, ASTM A105 has no Grade. Sometimes ASTM A105N is described; "N" stands not for Grade, but for normalized. Normalizing is a type of heat treatment, applicable to ferrous metals only. The purpose of normalizing is to remove the internal stresses induced by heat treating, casting, forming etc..

Chemical requirements composition, %

  Grade F304 (A) Grade F304L (A) Grade F316L (A-B)
Carbon, max 0.08 0.035 0.035
Manganese, max 2.00 2.00 2.00
Phosphorus, max 0.045 0.045 0.045
Sulfur, max 0.030 0.030 0.030
Silicon, max 1.00 1.00 1.00
Nickel 8 - 11 8 - 13 10 - 15
Chrome 18 - 20 18 - 20 16 - 18
Molybdenum - - 2.00-3.00
 

(A) Carbon 0.040% max. is necessary where many drawing passes are required, as with outside diameter <0.5 inch (12.7 mm), or nominal wall thickness <0.049 inch (1.2 mm).
(B) On pierced tube, Nickel may be 11 - 16.00%.

ASTM Grades

Material Pipes Fittings Flanges Valves Bolts & Nuts
 
Carbon Steel A106 Gr A A234 Gr WPA A105 A216 Gr WCB A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A106 Gr B A234 Gr WPB A105 A216 Gr WCB
A106 Gr C A234 Gr WPC A105 A216 Gr WCB
 
Carbon Steel
Alloy
High-Temp
A335 Gr P1 A234 Gr WP1 A182 Gr F1 A217 Gr WC1 A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A335 Gr P11 A234 Gr WP11 A182 Gr F11 A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P12 A234 Gr WP12 A182 Gr F12 A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P22 A234 Gr WP22 A182 Gr F22 A217 Gr WC9
A335 Gr P5 A234 Gr WP5 A182 Gr F5 A217 Gr C5
A335 Gr P9 A234 Gr WP9 A182 Gr F9 A217 Gr C12
 
Carbon Steel
Alloy
Low-Temp
A333 GR 6 A420 Gr WPL6 A350 Gr LF2 A352 Gr LCB A320 Gr L7
A194 Gr 7
A333 Gr 3 A420 Gr WPL3 A350 Gr LF3 A352 Gr LC3
 
Austenitic
Stainless
Steel
A312 Gr TP304 A403 Gr WP304 A182 Gr F304 A182 Gr F304 A193 Gr B8
A194 Gr 8
A312 Gr TP316 A403 Gr WP316 A182 Gr F316 A182 Gr F316
A312 Gr TP321 A403 Gr WP321 A182 Gr F321 A182 Gr F321
A312 Gr TP347 A403 Gr WP347 A182 Gr F347 A182 Gr F347
 

ASTM Materials

Pipes

  • A106 = This specification covers carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service.
  • A335 = This specification covers seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high-temperature service.
  • A333 = This specification covers wall seamless and welded carbon and alloy steel pipe intended for use at low temperatures.
  • A312 = Standard specification for seamless, straight-seam welded, and cold worked welded austenitic stainless steel pipe intended for high-temperature and general corrosive service.

Fittings

  • A234 = This specification covers wrought carbon steel and alloy steel fittings of seamless and welded construction.
  • A420 = Standard specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for low-temperature service.
  • A403 = Standard specification for wrought austenitic stainless steel piping fittings.

Flanges

  • A105 = This specification covers standards for forged carbon steel piping components, that is, flanges, fittings, Valves, and similar parts, for use in pressure systems at ambient and higher-temperature service conditions.
  • A182 = This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature service.
  • A350 = This specification covers several grades of carbon and low alloy steel forged or ring-rolled flanges, forged fittings and Valves for low-temperature service.

Valves

  • A216 = This specification covers carbon steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, or other pressure-containing parts for high-temperature service and of quality suitable for assembly with other castings or wrought-steel parts by fusion welding.
  • A217 = This specification covers steel castings, martensitic stainless steel and alloys steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for high-temperature and corrosive service.
  • A352 = This specification covers steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for low-temperature service.
  • A182 = This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature service.

Bolds & Nuts

  • A193 = This specification covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
  • A320 = Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service.
  • A194 = Standard specification for nuts in many different material types.

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